However, the MAC-RF was positively and significantly associated with several other psychopathological domains, supporting a view that domains of fear assessed by the MAC-RF are relevant for identifying overall psychopathology and not only its anxiety domain. The survey software did not allow participants to skip any question and therefore, there were no missing or incomplete responses in the dataset. Participants also reported significant levels of symptoms of anger, depression, anxiety, mania, and sleep problems on average (more than one or two episodes in the preceding 2 weeks). At the time of the survey completion, the mean duration of pandemic-related restrictions, such as lockdown, self-isolation, or quarantine, was 48.82 days (SD=12.47). This empirically based selection of items allowed us to include in the MAC-RF only one item for each fear facet, as per our quality criteria. 9. The MAC-RF was administered to a sample of 623 Italian adults from the community aged between 18 and 76 years old (M= 35.67, SD= 12.93), along with a measure of current clinical symptoms. In fact, intense experiences of fear, especially when prolonged in time, may alter the regulation of genes controlling the neuroendocrine response to stress (e.g., by an excessive synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoids) (9), fostering physical and mental diseases (10). However, the MAC-RF displayed an adequate sensitivity but a limited specificity at the suggested cut-off value of 12, indicating that its use in screening practice should be complemented with other specific measures on psychopathology. The advantages of a theory-based measure include interpretability of item scores according to theory, testing the theory itself, and the possibility to combine theory with results of the assessment to guide clinical decision-making. Sensitivity (the proportion of true positive individuals with the condition in a total group of subjects with the condition), specificity (the proportion of participants without the condition with negative test result in the total of participants without the condition), positive likelihood ratio (the likelihood that positive test results occur in participants with the condition compared to those without the condition), negative likelihood ratio (the ratio of the probability that negative results occur in participants with the condition to the probability that the same result will occur in participants without the condition), positive predictive value (the probability of having the condition in a subject with positive results), and negative predictive value (the probability of not having the condition in participants with negative test result) were calculated to test the ability of the MAC-RF to identify participants with a “condition” (i.e., those with high levels of psychopathology). These findings confirm the positive relationship between COVID-19-related fears and overall psychopathology. All authors contributed to the study design and to the development of the items of the Multidimensional Assessment of the COVID-19-Related Fears (MAC-RF). These findings are highly consistent with previous research reporting increased levels of fear among females (27, 28), and more generally with research showing that females are more prone to internalizing symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, whereas males are more prone to externalizing symptoms, such as substance use and antisocial behaviors (29, 30). Participants in this study were 623 Italian community-dwelling adults (448 females, 71.9%) recruited online, ranging in age from 18 to 76 years (M= 35.67, SD= 12.93). Therefore, understanding fears in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is important, using both a theoretical model and a valid measure that would assess the fears and test the model. doi: 10.1177/10634266070150030101, 31. 4. The statistics based on one-way, two-way, and full marginal tables showed a significant M2 (728.16, df=440, p<.001), but a satisfactory RMSEA of.03 indicating that the latent trait dimensionality was correctly specified in the IRT model. T-scores are similar by race, with the Hispanic population revealing a slightly lower tendency toward psychopathology. Only 9% of participants (n=56) lived alone and 8.7% (n=54) lived with friends, whereas the majority lived with their partner and offspring (n= 265, 42.5%) or with parents (n= 248, 39.8%). The MAC-RF is an eight-item, self-report scale that has been developed to assess clinically relevant domains of fear during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants had 16.52 years of education on average (SD= 3.18). Smith SM, Wylie WV. Copyright © 2020 Schimmenti, Starcevic, Giardina, Khazaal and Billieux. Each dimension has 5 levels: no problems, slight problems, moderate problems, severe problems and extreme problems. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. A total MAC-RF score of 20 corresponded to a θ of 1, suggesting that this score might be a cut-off value for identifying heightened experiences of fear that deserve clinical attention. Psych Res (2020) 286:112822. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112822, 19. Rescorla L, Achenbach T, Ivanova MY, Levent D, Almqvist F, Bilenberg N, et al. Protection and damage from acute and chronic stress: Allostasis and allostatic overload and relevance to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III is the current version; version 4 is due to release September 2019) is a standard series of measurements originally developed by psychologist Nancy Bayley used primarily to assess the development of infants and toddlers, ages 1–42 months. Clin Neuropsychiatry (2020) 17:76–9. However, in IRT applications it is highly unlikely that a model will exactly fit the data, thus statistics for approximate fit are used, such as the RMSEA, that takes into account both the M2 value and the degrees of freedom of the model. Development and initial validation of the COVID Stress Scales. We used the principal axis factoring method selecting the oblimin rotation to allow the potentially identified factors to correlate, as per theoretical model prediction. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Supplementary Table 1 | Development of the MAC-RF: original items, related theoretical facets, item-total correlation, a-paramenter values, and retention of items. In this article, we present the development and psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of COVID-19--Related Fears (MAC-RF). Longitudinal studies using the MAC-RF are needed to better understand these relationships. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Psychiatry 11:748. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00748. The VAS can be used as a quantitative measure of health outcome that reflect the patient’s own judgement. Descriptive Statistics . AS collected and analyzed the data, and was responsible for preparing the first draft of the article. The study received an approval from the institutional review board for psychological research of the first author’s university (code UKE-IRBPSY-04.20.04).

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